Copyright 2020 Nuclear Power for Everybody | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter, Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter, Oganesson – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization, Reactor Dynamics – Quiz – Test your Knowledge, US uranium miners ready to support nuclear power, says AAPG, Adequate uranium to meet demand, latest Red Book concludes, Mochovce new-build project receives loan boost. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. The melting point of ice is 0 °C. Protactinium is a chemical element with atomic number 91 which means there are 91 protons and 91 electrons in the atomic structure. Molybdenum is a chemical element with atomic number 42 which means there are 42 protons and 42 electrons in the atomic structure. Rhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 75 which means there are 75 protons and 75 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Gold is Au. The chemical symbol for Samarium is Sm. This is because the size effects the strength of the forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces). By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. For example, sodium chloride  (NaCl) is an ionic compound that consists of a multitude of strong ionic bonds. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. 113Cd has specific absorption cross-section. This website was founded as a non-profit project, build entirely by a group of nuclear engineers. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Iodine is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation. In general, boiling is a phase change of a substance from the liquid to the gas phase. The chemical symbol for Uranium is U. Lawrencium is a chemical element with atomic number 103 which means there are 103 protons and 103 electrons in the atomic structure. It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient. Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3. The chemical symbol for Holmium is Ho. Although classified as a rare earth element, samarium is the 40th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and is more common than such metals as tin. The chemical symbol for Phosphorus is P. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. In nuclear industry, especially natural and artificial samarium 149 has an important impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Cadmium is a chemical element with atomic number 48 which means there are 48 protons and 48 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Technetium is Tc. Neptunium is the first transuranic element. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. The chemical symbol for Lead is Pb. Liquid nitrogen (made by distilling liquid air) boils at 77.4 kelvins (−195.8°C) and is used as a coolant. The chemical symbol for Caesium is Cs. Ytterbium is a chemical element with atomic number 70 which means there are 70 protons and 70 electrons in the atomic structure. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl. All of its isotopes are radioactive. Zirconium is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. The chemical symbol for Gadolinium is Gd. Why does Phosphorus have a higher melting point than Chlorine? It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, behind only oxygen and fluorine. Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. The chemical symbol for Rubidium is Rb. Iron is a metal in the first transition series. Argon is a chemical element with atomic number 18 which means there are 18 protons and 18 electrons in the atomic structure. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. Such weak intermolecular bonds give organic molecular substances, such as waxes and oils, their soft bulk character, and their low melting points (in liquids, molecules must cease most structured or oriented contact with each other). Berkelium is a chemical element with atomic number 97 which means there are 97 protons and 97 electrons in the atomic structure. Argon is monatomic – it exists as separate atoms. Zirconium is widely used as a cladding for nuclear reactor fuels. Calcium is a chemical element with atomic number 20 which means there are 20 protons and 20 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Vanadium is V. Vanadium is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Erbium is a silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. The chemical symbol for Iridium is Ir. The melting point is the temperature at which the disruptive vibrations of the particles of the solid overcome the attractive forces operating within the solid. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. The metal is found in the Earth’s crust in the pure, free elemental form (“native silver”), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Bismuth is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. If the pressure is increased to 10 atmospheres carbon (graphite) is observed to melt at 3550 °C. and Gay-Lussac, L.-J. Freezing Point (or melting point) — -149.76°F (-100.98°C) at 1 atmosphere Density — Dry Gas 0.2006 lb/ft.3 (3.213 kg/m3) at standard temperature and pressure Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. 36Cl is the stable radioisotope of chlorine. Silver is a chemical element with atomic number 47 which means there are 47 protons and 47 electrons in the atomic structure. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Antimony is a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. Cerium is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. The chemical symbol for Thorium is Th. Nickel is a chemical element with atomic number 28 which means there are 28 protons and 28 electrons in the atomic structure. Phosphorus is a chemical element with atomic number 15 which means there are 15 protons and 15 electrons in the atomic structure. E. Discoverer: De Marignac, Charles Galissard, Discoverer: De Marignac, Jean Charles Galissard, Discoverer: Göhring, Otto and Fajans, Kasimir. Promethium is a chemical element with atomic number 61 which means there are 61 protons and 61 electrons in the atomic structure. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. The chemical symbol for Xenon is Xe. The chemical symbol for Iodine is I. Iodine is the heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The chemical symbol for Gallium is Ga. Gallium has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. Silicon is a chemical element with atomic number 14 which means there are 14 protons and 14 electrons in the atomic structure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Titanium is a chemical element with atomic number 22 which means there are 22 protons and 22 electrons in the atomic structure. Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™. Neodymium is a chemical element with atomic number 60 which means there are 60 protons and 60 electrons in the atomic structure. As with boiling points, the melting point of a solid is dependent on the strength of those attractive forces. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass), and are typically low in energy. The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. The chemical symbol for Terbium is Tb. Antimony is a chemical element with atomic number 51 which means there are 51 protons and 51 electrons in the atomic structure. Ruthenium is a chemical element with atomic number 44 which means there are 44 protons and 44 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Selenium is Se. Boiling point of Chlorine is -34.6°C . Adding a heat will convert the solid into a liquid with no temperature change. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. Dysprosium is a chemical element with atomic number 66 which means there are 66 protons and 66 electrons in the atomic structure. Einsteinium is the seventh transuranic element, and an actinide. Copper is a chemical element with atomic number 29 which means there are 29 protons and 29 electrons in the atomic structure. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons and 32 electrons in the atomic structure. Melting point of Chlorine is -101°C. The chemical symbol for Scandium is Sc. Because chlorine and bromine share the same column, bromine possesses the higher melting point. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese. Chlorine is one of the most common chemical elements. Thallium is a soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. Sodium has a low melting point 98 deg Celcius. Barium is a chemical element with atomic number 56 which means there are 56 protons and 56 electrons in the atomic structure. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral). The chemical symbol for Krypton is Kr. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv). Osmium is a chemical element with atomic number 76 which means there are 76 protons and 76 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Praseodymium is Pr. There are are van der Waals' forces between its atoms. 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