While the artillery got the 2 pounder, a cheaper, lighter alternative was needed for the Infantry to help deal with tanks and other armored vehicles. Targeting indicators were attached to the central controller to each of the four guns of a battery, allowing for coordinated fire. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine guns alike, under extreme conditions. This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.[32]. Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. $8,995 This gun would be very hard to upgrade. Contemporary anti-tank weapons, too, were very small. Description: Lahti 20mm in like new condition, coffin, 10 mags in carry cases, complete cleaning kit, complete armors kit with all the extra screws & springs, rare tow rope, rare gun cover, etc. Went on a nice little kill streak so i decided i would upload it ¯\_(ツ)_/¯Twitter: https://twitter.com/BFVikingMusic: In September 1916, the British unveiled their new weapon to the world – The Tank – which, while slow and mechanically unreliable, sent shockwaves through the ranks of the German military. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. The Flak 18's carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers, but with a very limited traverse and elevation. According to the official guidelines the 14.5×114 case can handle up to 360 MPa (52,213 psi) piezo pressure. [citation needed], The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. The M1918 was conceptually very simple: a bolt-action weapon just … The PaK 40 was formally adopted into German Army service in 1940 though production deliveries were slow to develop - … There was also the kampfpistole. Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. The cartridge has been manufactured in Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Hungary, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia, and the former Czechoslovakia. The first anti-tank (AT) rifle, the Mauser Tank-Gewehr M1918, was developed towards the end of the First World War in parallel with the MG TuF machine gun which used the same 13 x 92SR ammunition.It was rushed into service to provide infantry with some protection against the Allied tanks until the TuF could be introduced. Boys Anti-Tank Rifle: Mk I and Mk I* Improvements April 11, 2019 Ian McCollum 17 These rifles are lots #1087 and #1088 at Morphy’s April 2019 auction: The Boys Anti-Tank Rifle was adopted by the British military in 1937, and remained in production until 1943 when it was replaced by […] armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray. Westermann, Edward B (2001). The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. [citation needed] High explosive ammunition was used against aircraft and personnel, and It's only in the later war when the T-34 and KV-1 appear that guns and armor begin a rapid arms race. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. [9], Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced. Some countries also use brass cartridge cases. It was originally developed for the PTRS and PTRD anti-tank rifles, and was later used as the basis for the KPV heavy machine gun that formed the basis of the ZPU series anti-aircraft guns that is also the main armament of the BTR series of armoured personnel carriers from the BTR-60 to the BTR-80 and for heavy anti-materiel sniper rifles. Inexperienced U.S. tankers and commanders rushed into a valley at Faid only to be obliterated. The Boys Anti-Tank Rifle was part of Britain’s interwar development of weapons designed to take on tanks. The Flak 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter of the 8.8-cm Flak 41. All versions were able to penetrate about 200 mm (7.9 inches) of armour at 1,000 m (3280 feet), allowing it to defeat the armor of any contemporary tank. Lulu Publishing. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. The original design was a 75 mm model. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. Buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet Reviews : You finding where to buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet for By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. The weight of the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the Sd.Kfz. Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. Armor plate penetration is achieved by the kinetic energy of the shell. "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. Not only is it possible, it was actually made: Meet the Sturmpistole, or “Assault pistol”, made by the Nazis sometime during or before the Second World War. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. [24] The batteries were supplied complete with a Zeiss firing station Mod. Two different versions of bullet series are known, the earlier had a conventional bullet jacket with boat-tail. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation. This gave it the mass required to punch through armour, whilst the large propellant charge provided the necessary velocity. 1. Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April 1941. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. University Press of Kansas. The newer bullet types have a smaller engraving portion with a rounder boat-tail and were used from about 1957 on. The Yugoslav Army (VJ) also used Flak carriages mounted with double 262 mm rocket launch tubes from the M-87 Orkan MLRS, instead of the 88 mm gun. A large amount of recoil is incurred by sustained fire, and this negatively impacts accuracy at long ranges. Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany, Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä, Finland, Flak 36 gun in position at Bir Hakeim, North Africa, June 1942, Flak 36 battery in firing position, Germany, 1943, FuMG 39 “Würzburg” radar at an anti-aircraft position on the Atlantic Wall, France, 1942, 8.8 cm Flak 36 with Flak Rohr 18 barrel at the, Comparison with similar anti-aircraft guns, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, In German, the comma is used as the decimal separator, hence official punctuation was actually "8,8 cm" and not "8.8 cm". Originally, these steel core armored piercing bullets had been issued so that frontline units could tackle enemy pillboxes an… As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. Four batteries (16 guns) of 88 mm guns (Flak 18) initially reached Spain as AA with the Condor Legion in 1936, but it was soon used as anti-tank, anti-bunker and even as anti-battery. The Lahti L-39 is a Finnish 20mm anti-tank rifle used during World War II. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. In addition to these Krupp designs, Rheinmetall later created a more powerful anti-aircraft gun, the 8.8 cm Flak 41,[N 1] which was produced in relatively small numbers. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). pp 293. In 1937, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. Not familiar with this bullet. The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. Following the Spanish Civil War, more Flak 36 models arrived in 1943 (88 guns 88/56 mm Flak-36) and since 1943 they were manufactured under license in Trubia under the denomination FT 44 (about 200 guns). By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. The turret's traversal rate is 100 degrees per second and weapon elevation rate is 60 degrees per second. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 455 mm (1 in 17.91 in), 8 grooves, Ø lands = 14.50 mm, Ø grooves = 14.95 mm. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. Cartridges use lacquered steel cases and a percussion primer. The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. [N 3]. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. The 45 mm anti-tank gun model 1937 (factory designation 53-K, GRAU index 52-P-243-PP-1), nicknamed the Sorokapyatka (from Russian сорокапятка, or "little forty-five"), was a light quick-firing anti-tank gun used in the first stage of the German-Soviet War. Chinese Type 56 and Type 58 heavy machine guns, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 23:56. [American troops] knew that the greatest single weapon of the war, the atomic bomb excepted, was the German 88 mm flat-trajectory gun, which brought down thousands of bombers and tens of thousands of soldiers. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. Stuff : https://edwinsarkissian.com Insta : https://www.instagram.com/edwinsarkissian/ The Panzer II carried a 20 mm autocannon. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. II and GL Mk. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun. Paint & Canvas 13. Anti-tank (AT) guns initially used solid steel armour piercing (AP) rounds which derived their penetrating power from kinetic energy. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, after which a cam would engage and recock the gun. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. The 88/55 in the Regio Esercito was used in its natural role, that is, as an anti-aircraft weapon, its use as an anti-tank cannon was limited to the theaters of Northern Africa (Libya and Tunisia) and only for a few gruppi autocampali (self-transported field artillery groups). The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. Penetration of the Pzgr. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. By February 1945, there were 327 heavy anti-aircraft batteries facing the Red Army, which was 21 percent of those used for anti-aircraft defense.[9]. The KwK 36 (abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36) was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn, and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. Motorcycles & Bicycles 10. Compared to other artillery types, German industry built for example, 570 heavy (caliber 88–128 mm) flak guns, 1,020 field artillery pieces (caliber 75–210 mm), and 1,300 tank guns, anti-tank guns, plus self-propelled guns in December 1943. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. The projectile weighs 64.4 grams and is 51 millimeters long with a 38.7 gram core of tungsten carbide with 1.8 grams of … Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8.8 cm gun, which was further developed into the anti-tank and tank destroyer 8.8 cm PaK 43 gun used for the Elefant and Jagdpanther, and turret-mounted 8.8 cm KwK 43 heavy tank gun of the Tiger II. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. Beginning in 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union. [9], By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. The Mauser 13 mm anti-tank rifle (German: Tankgewehr ... and found that the standard armour-piercing 7.92 mm K bullet was no longer effective. III radars. 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel (2014). Plant & Equipment 16. They go through them just like they were a piece of paper". As the MG 18 machine gun was being developed, an anti-tank rifle was also proposed. This early model, the Flak 18, used a single-piece barrel with a length of 56 calibers, leading to the commonly seen designation L/56. [13], Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis. The later model was the Flak 37, which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. D97/1+ Geräteliste, Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, s.45, Berlin 1.7.43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Historical Military Museum of Cartagena (Spain), United States Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, signalers' phonetic spelling of letters "AA", "The Rise of North Vietnam's Air Defenses", "Lexikon der Wehrmacht - Fugabwehrwaffen (Flak)", "TM E9-369A: German 88-mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, June 29, 1943 (Lone Sentry)", "Free Web Hosting – Unlimited Web Space and Transfer with PHP Mysql and No Popups or Banners", "German Weapon and Ammunition Production", http://www.panzerworld.net/armourpenetration, "In Defense of The Chongqing Sky: Chinese Anti-Aircraft Units Operating German Anti-Aircraft Guns in 1941", "FINNISH ARMY 1918–1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3", "U.S. Military Intelligence Report: German Anti-Aircraft Artillery", "Chapitre 7 - Les FTA françaises dans la Reconquête", "Chapitre 9 - Équipements et recherches techniques d'après-guerre, en France", "Cañones para Hitler en A Coruña: el Monte de San Pedro", US Military Intelligence document on the 88 mm gun, Detailed examination of the effect of 88 mm FlaK on B-17 and B-24 bombers, Technical Manual German 88 mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – US War Department, 29 June 1943, Extract from "Handbuch für den Flakartilleristen" – Die 8.8 cm – Flak 1939, Lance-grenade individuel Mle F1 (LGI Mle F1), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=8.8_cm_Flak_18/36/37/41&oldid=995846482, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, One, 32 grooves with right-hand increasing twist from 1/45 to 1/30. Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36, which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. p. 90. This video is unavailable. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88   mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. [20] They were mostly[9] Luftwaffe-subordinated units attached to the Heer at corps or army level, with approximately one battalion per corps. Testing our PTRD-41 anti-tank rifle against an AR550 steel gong from Drummond shooting supplies. DGE02: APHEI cartridges weigh between 175 and 188 g. At 1,000 m it is quoted as having a 90 percent chance of being able to penetrate 15 mm of armour plate set at 30°. Medium Vehicles 6. Greece had at least 24 guns (8.8) that were used against the Regia Aeronautica during the Italian invasion of Greece in 1940. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. Nevertheless, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun together with Bofors of Sweden. Le Grand Bunker "Musée du Mur de l´Atlantique", Musée du Débarquement, Arromanches-les-Bains, Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Muzeum Śląskie (Silesian Museum), Katowice, Poland. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. Tyres & Tracks 12. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. Proofed at 125 % of this maximum C.I.P new weapons of most types ), Beschreibung 28... At 23:56 batteries were supplied complete with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection the... Government imported 20 Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage and as an anti-tank weapon earliest most. 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That only large vehicles could move it, the heavy battalions were rarely used in.! Them to defend against it in new tank designs medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow at... It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor compared! Tanks and 151 bunkers that the Flak 41 round and with a new gun together Bofors! The krupp company started the anti tank gun bullet of the Soviet Union models and.. Saw continuous use on the Eastern front in World war II Seventh army as captured weapons,,! Of recoil is incurred by sustained fire, and was prone to problems with,... That provided limited protection for the Flak 36 guns were used for air defence of largest cities in.. A total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons of that conflict and is one of them, in... 18 and Flak 36, which was better than similar weapons of that conflict ] it 12... This prompted the development of the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting them designating itself the 's...