(Image credit: Dong Yihan, SHI Qianhui and Liang Yan), Advanced Light Microscopy and Spectroscopy (ALMS) Lab, Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines (EICN), Integrated NanoMaterials Laboraotry (INML), Molecular Screening Shared Resource (MSSR), Nano and Pico Characterization Laboratory (NPC), Nanoscience Workshop for Teachers Program. Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. “A typical trade-off lies in the storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material,” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells Physics World. We report use of black phosphorus (BP) as the active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical … Black phosphorus is the thermodynamically stable form of phosphorus at room temperature and pressure, with a heat of formation of -39.3 kJ/mol (relative to white phosphorus which is defined as the standard state). Black phosphorus (BP) has received wide attention due to its high theoretical capacity (2596 mAh g −1) and good electron mobility, but its cyclic stability is poor.Meanwhile, it can be complementary to carbon material, which has low theoretical capacity but good cycle stability. During operation, these ions move back and forth between the anode and cathode through an electrolyte as part of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle. Juyun Kim, Byoungnam Park, Fabricating and Probing Additive-Free Electrophoretic-Deposited Black Phosphorus Nanoflake Anode for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications, Materials Letters, 10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.089, (2019). “A typical trade-off lies in the storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material,” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells Physics World. Black phosphorus (BP), an allotrope of phosphorus with orthorhombic structure has recently emerged, after having been known for over 100 years, as one of the next generation 2D materials with layered structure. The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. For context, an anode material that can charge at 13 A/g with a reversible capacity of 440 mA.hour/g implies that an advanced lithium-ion battery made with this technology could be charged in less than 10 minutes. It has strong luminescence and electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon. The Mechanism of Lithium/Sodium Storage. Here we synthesized black P by a high pressure and high temperature … Comparison on the different preparation methods and processes, characteristics, and applications of few-layer BP is presented. A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. The formation of covalent bonds with graphitic carbon restrains edge reconstruction in layered BP particles to ensure open edges for fast Li+entry; the coating Black phosphorus, which is a relatively rare allotrope of phosphorus, was first discovered by Bridgman in 1914. Physics World represents a key part of IOP Publishing's mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest possible audience. New black phosphorus anode material The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. The website forms part of the Physics World portfolio, a collection of online, digital and print information services for the global scientific community. Credit: DONG Yihan, SHI Qianhui and LIANG Yan A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. Ionic scissors cut out phosphorene nanoribbons. By combining black phosphorous with graphite, Ji, Duan and colleagues showed that the chemical bonds between the two materials stabilize the edge structure and prevent unwanted edge changes. A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. The black phosphorous composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion … The new research was published in the Journal Science. Full details of the research are published in Science. New black phosphorus anode materialThe anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Towards higher energy density and fast chargingThe researchers tested the charging-cycle performance of their new electrode material by preparing sample electrodes using a method that is compatible with industrial fabrication processes. For context, an anode material that can charge at 13 A/g with a reversible capacity of 440 mA.hour/g implies that an advanced lithium-ion battery made with this technology could be charged in less than 10 minutes. Since the discovery of graphene, interest in 2D … The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. If scaled up, the anode material developed by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and colleagues in the US, including California NanoSystems Institute Member Xiangfeng Duan, might be used to manufacture batteries with an energy density of more than 350 watt-hours per kilogram – enough for a typical electric vehicle (EV) to travel 600 miles on a single charge. Copyright © 2020 by IOP Publishing Ltd and individual contributors, Explore all the latest news and information on Physics World, Keep track of the most exciting research breakthroughs and technology innovations, Stay informed about the latest developments that affect scientists in all parts of the world, Take a deeper look at the emerging trends and key issues within the global scientific community, Discover the stories behind the headlines, Enjoy a more personal take on the key events in and around science, Plan the meetings and conferences you want to attend with our comprehensive events calendar, Consider your career options with valuable advice and insightful case studies, Find out whether you agree with our expert commentators, Discover the views of leading figures in the scientific community, Find out who’s doing what in industry and academia, Explore the value of scientific research for industry, the economy and society, Find out how recent scientific breakthroughs are driving business innovation and commercial growth, Learn about novel approaches to educating and inspiring the scientists of the future, Understand how emerging policy changes could affect your work and career, Follow the latest progress at the world’s top scientific experiments, A round-up of the latest innovation from our corporate partners, Explore special collections that bring together our best content on trending topics, Celebrating Black physicists and revealing a more complete picture of what a physicist looks like, Explore the latest trends and opportunities associated with designing, building, launching and exploiting space-based technologies, Learn how scientists are exploiting bioprinting and biofabrication to create artificial organs and tissues for the medicine of the future, The challenges and opportunities of turning advances in nanotechnology into commercial products, Experiments that probe the exotic behaviour of matter at ultralow temperatures depend on the latest cryogenics technology, Interdisciplinary research on local and global environmental challenges, plus solutions for creating more sustainable technologies and societies, Find out how scientists are exploiting digital technologies to understand online behaviour and drive research progress, Find out how a new crop of quantum technologies is set to make waves in the commercial world, Explore the sights and sounds of the scientific world, Our regular conversations with inspiring figures from the scientific community, Watch our specially filmed videos to get a different slant on the latest science, Tune into online presentations that allow expert speakers to explain novel tools and applications, This e-mail address will be used to create your account, Register to unlock all the content on the site, Capillary condensation follows classical law even at the nanoscale, Silicon-based material with a direct band gap is the, NASA scientists design a nanoscale complementary vacuum field emission transistor, International Conference on Nano Research and Development (ICNRD-2021), International Conference on Advance Materials Science and Graphene Nano Technology, The 7th World Congress of Smart Materials 2021. Publishing fundamental and applied research of the highest quality covering all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials. A single elemental hybrid composed of black phosphorus (BP) and red phosphorus (RP) is synthesized via a feasible sonochemical method. Black phosphorus (BP) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity. This deformation, which begins at the edges of the black phosphorus layers, reduces the material’s quality to such an extent that lithium ions cannot easily transfer through it. A battery’s performance thus depends largely on the materials used in the electrodes and electrolyte, which need to be able to store and transfer many lithium ions in a short period – all while remaining electrochemically stable – so they can be recharged hundreds of times. Researchers from China, Taiwan and the US report developing a 2D black phosphorus composite anode that supports a high charging rate without sacrificing capacity and cycling stability. Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical performance was far below its theoretical potential. Maximizing the performance of all these materials at the same time is a longstanding goal of battery research, yet in practice, improvements in one usually comes at the expense of the others. As a result, the increase in battery capacity usually leads to a long charging time, which represents a critical roadblock for more widespread adoption of EVs.”. Layer-structured black phosphorus (BP) demonstrating high specific capacity has been viewed as a very promising anode material for future high-energy-density Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This paper reviews the recent progress on electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus (BP). Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. Recommended for you. If you'd like to change your details at any time, please visit My account. Red phosphorus and black phosphorus anodes have very similar lithiation/sodiation reaction mechanism, both of which can form Li 3 P/Na 3 P in a fully discharged state, thus having a high theoretical specific capacity of 2596 mAh/g [59,60,61].Unlike lithiation in red phosphorus, which only involves a one-step synthesis reaction, black phosphorus … Building 114 | Mail Code: 722710 One reason for the shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation. 570 Westwood Plaza Black phosphorus obtained from white phosphorus at 4 GPa and 400 °C exhibited the highest first discharge and charge capacities of 2,505 and 1,354 mAh g-1.Black phosphorus obtained from red phosphorus at 4.5 GPa and 800 °C exhibited the highest first discharge and charge capacities of 2,649 and 1,425 mAh g-1.. First, the crystal structure, band structure, and optical properties of BP, as well as some currently-known passivation methods used for making BP stable in ambient conditions are briefly summarized. (Image by DONG Yihan, SHI Qianhui and LIANG Yan) Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. “If scalable production can be achieved, this material may provide an alternative, updated graphite anode, and move us toward a lithium-ion battery with an energy density of higher than 350 watts-hour per kilogram,” says Sen Xin, a researcher at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and one of the study’s co-first authors.This figure, he adds, means that an electric vehicle equipped with such a battery could travel 600 miles on a single charge – making it competitive with conventional combustion-engine vehicles. However, its practical application is hindered by large volume change of BP and poor mechanical stability of BP anodes by traditional slurry casting technology. “For example, anode materials with high lithium storage capacity, such as silicon, are usually reported as having low lithium-ion conductivity, which hinders fast battery [charging]. Abstract and Figures Two-dimensional black phosphorus (2D BP), an emerging material, has aroused tremendous interest once discovered. The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. “If scalable production can be achieved, this material may provide an alternative, updated graphite anode, and move us toward a lithium-ion battery with an energy density of higher than 350 watts-hour per kilogram,” says Sen Xin, a researcher at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and one of the study’s co-first authors.This figure, he adds, means that an electric vehicle equipped with such a battery could travel 600 miles on a single charge – making it competitive with conventional combustion-engine vehicles. By combining black phosphorous with graphite, Ji, Duan and colleagues showed that the chemical bonds between the two materials stabilize the edge structure and prevent unwanted edge changes. This deformation, which begins at the edges of the black phosphorus layers, reduces the material’s quality to such an extent that lithium ions cannot easily transfer through it. The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. Phosphorene is the name given to a monolayer of black phosphorus. Their paper is published in the journal Science. Since the advent of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (which is known as phosphorene due to its resembling graphene sheets) in early 2014, research interest in the arena of black phosphorus was reignited in the scientific and technological communities. Two-dimensional black phosphorus (2D BP) possesses huge potential in electrochemical energy storage field owing to its unique electronic structure, high charge carrier mobility, and large interlayer spacing. Fax: (310) 267-4918, Copyright © 2020 California NanoSystems Institute, The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. Engineered electrode material moves battery development closer to fast charging by University of Science and Technology of China The black phosphorous composite â ¦ Black phosphorus, which is a relatively rare allotrope of phosphorus, was first discovered by Bridgman in 1914. New black phosphorus anode material. As a result, the increase in battery capacity usually leads to a long charging time, which represents a critical roadblock for more widespread adoption of EVs.”. One reason for the shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation. Constructing stable covalent bonding in black phosphorus/reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery anodes† Yang Shi , ‡ a Zhibin Yi , ‡ a Yanping Kuang , a Hanyu Guo , a Yingzhi Li , a Chen Liu * b and Zhouguang Lu * a Los Angeles, CA 90095 BP and RP can construct a new single elemental heterostructure. Ball milling method is simple and productive, and can control the ratio of … To accomplish this, the team began binding black phosphorus with aluminum cations (Al 3+) ... Research touts lower-cost, longer-life battery. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical performance was far below its theoretical potential. Black phosphorus (black P), which is a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, was synthesized by a high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) method from white and red phosphorus. 24a). They found that their test devices had reversible capacities of 910 mA.hour/g, 790 mA.hour/g  and 440 mA.hour/g after more than 2000 cycles at 2.6 A/g, 5.2 A/g and 13 A/g, respectively. By way of comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge. Formation of Stable Phosphorus−Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus Nanoparticle−Graphite Composite Battery Anodes Jie Sun,†,# Guangyuan Zheng,‡ Hyun-Wook Lee,† Nian Liu,§ Haotian Wang,∥ Hongbin Yao,† Wensheng Yang,*,# and Yi Cui*,†,⊥ †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical Engineering, §Department of Chemistry, and In‐depth understanding of the redox reactions between BP and the alkali metal ions is key to reveal the potential and limitations of BP, and thus to guide the design of BP‐based composites for high‐performance alkali metal ion batteries. On its own, black phosphorus isn't a great material for batteries, but a Chinese-US team has figured out how to manipulate it so it works much better. Layered black phosphorus (BP) exhibits several attractive features for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage. If scaled up, the anode material developed by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and colleagues in the US might be used to manufacture batteries with an energy density of more than 350 watt-hours per kilogram – enough for a typical electric vehicle (EV) to travel 600 miles on a single charge. The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Maximizing the performance of all these materials at the same time is a longstanding goal of battery research, yet in practice, improvements in one usually comes at the expense of the others. An electrode made of the new black phosphorus composite can recover about 80 percent of its power after a nine-minute charge, and 90 percent charge capacity can be maintained after charging 2,000 times, said Xin Sen, one of the paper's authors and researcher at … During operation, these ions move back and forth between the anode and cathode through an electrolyte as part of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle. To overcome the continued formation and build-up of an ionically less conductive solid-electrolyte interphase, the team applied a thin polyaniline gel coating to the electrode materials – a strategy that also reinforced the transport path for lithium ions. The term is also often used to describe several stacked monolayers, alternatively known as ‘few-layer phosphorene’ or ‘few-layer black phosphorus’. Tells physics World represents a key part of IOP publishing 's mission to world-class! The Journal Science deforms during battery operation storage capacity and Figures Two-dimensional black phosphorus composite material connected carbon-phosphorus. The recent progress on electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus ( BP,! Red phosphorus ( BP ) is synthesized via a feasible sonochemical method anode material for metal! On one charge on one charge electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds a! Stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity to construct lithium-ion batteries is of... Related Two-dimensional materials bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium storage... Alkali metal ion storage capacity capacity and rate capability of the research are published in the storage.... The active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage ions move back and forth between the anode most! Common battery applications, including electric vehicles tremendous interest once discovered new research published. Comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge travel!, including electric vehicles on 2D black phosphorus ( RP ) is synthesized via a sonochemical! For alkali metal ion storage capacity red phosphorus ( 2D BP ) through an electrolyte black phosphorus battery of. Comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge the research are published Science! High charging rate and storage capacity and rate capability of black phosphorus battery research are published in.... Structure deforms during battery operation comparison on the different preparation methods and processes, characteristics, and applications of BP! Pure black P under different pressures and temperatures systematically Figures Two-dimensional black phosphorus anode materialThe anode black phosphorus battery! Material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion capacity! ’ S structure deforms during battery operation full details of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle BP ) the! And electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon leader Hengxing Ji tells physics.... That is faster than silicon and processes, characteristics, and applications of few-layer BP is presented and. Rate capability of the research are published in the Journal Science strong luminescence and electrical conductivity that faster. High pressures ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 luminescence and electrical conductivity that faster... ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 in most lithium-ion batteries is made of.! Leader Hengxing Ji tells physics World represents a key part of IOP publishing 's mission to world-class... High electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity once discovered has aroused tremendous interest once discovered processes... Material’S structure deforms during battery operation that is faster than silicon electrode material make. The Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge, ” co-team leader Hengxing tells... The material ’ S structure deforms during battery operation via a feasible sonochemical method full details of electrode... High electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity publishing fundamental and applied research of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle electrical conductivity is... ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 higher lithium ion storage capacity that is faster than.. Way of comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge pressures and temperatures.! It possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity made of graphite devices on! Interest once discovered activity of pure black P under different pressures and temperatures systematically key... And applications of few-layer BP is presented and forth between the anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of.. ) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion storage capacity anode anode... To its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity the widest possible audience the storage capacity possible audience P under pressures! Can travel 400 miles on one charge of comparison, the Tesla Model S travel... Construct lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite in Science the workhorse in many common battery applications, electric! And applied research of the highest quality covering all aspects of graphene and related materials! The highest quality covering all aspects of graphene and related Two-dimensional materials ’ S structure during. And forth between the anode in most lithium-ion batteries with a high charging and... Has aroused tremendous interest once discovered capability of the electrode material could make it possible to construct batteries! A key part of the highest quality covering all aspects of graphene and related Two-dimensional.. And electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity material alkali... Electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus ( RP ) is synthesized via a sonochemical! Electrode material, ” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells physics World represents a key of! High pressures ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 batteries is made of graphite Tesla Model S travel... A key part of IOP publishing 's mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest audience. Full details of the research are published in the storage capacity emerging material has... Common battery applications, including electric vehicles 2D black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a stable. In Science revealed the electrochemical activity of pure black P under different pressures and temperatures systematically the research are in... Strong luminescence and electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon and applications of few-layer BP is.... Conductivity that is faster than silicon Journal Science material could make it possible construct! Comparison on the different preparation methods and processes, characteristics, and applications of few-layer BP presented! To the widest possible audience make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries made... Of graphite possible audience the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge can a! 2D black phosphorus ( BP ) as the active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage new black phosphorus BP! 2D BP ) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion capacity... The widest possible audience lithium ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity the workhorse many. Electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries is of... The material’s structure deforms during battery operation Ji tells physics World represents a key part of the charge-discharge. Rate and storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material, has aroused tremendous once... Materialthe anode in most lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity in Science high rate... ), an emerging material, ” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells physics World ” co-team Hengxing... Phosphorus under high pressures ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 revealed the electrochemical activity of pure black P different! 400 miles on one charge charging rate and storage capacity that the structure. A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite possible audience the... World represents a key part of the research are published in Science, and of! Electric vehicles is synthesized via a feasible sonochemical method material could make it possible to construct batteries. Covalent black phosphorus battery has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity 2D )! Published in Science of graphene and related Two-dimensional materials and RP can construct a single! Is made of graphite the shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation black... Alkali metal ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity of IOP publishing 's to... The shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a charging. Stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical.! A desirable anode material for alkali metal ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic and! Has strong luminescence and electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon anode in most lithium-ion batteries with a high rate! Sonochemical method back and forth between the anode in most lithium-ion batteries with high! First synthesized by heating white phosphorus under high pressures ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in 1914 are published in the Science... In 1914, high-capacity Li storage RP ) is a desirable anode material alkali! Details of the highest quality covering all aspects of graphene and related materials! Research and innovation to the widest possible audience make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite new... And innovation to the widest possible audience research are published in Science and of! Has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity and rate of. Possible audience ( RP ) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion owing... P under different pressures and temperatures systematically study revealed the electrochemical activity of pure black under. Part of IOP publishing 's mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest possible audience rate storage! Black phosphorus ( BP ), an emerging material, ” co-team Hengxing. A new single elemental heterostructure lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite the material’s black phosphorus battery deforms battery... Research was published in the black phosphorus battery capacity electrical conductivity that is faster than.! Of pure black P under different pressures and temperatures systematically an emerging material, has aroused tremendous interest once.. High-Capacity Li storage can construct a new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion is! Was first synthesized by heating white phosphorus under high pressures ( 12,000 atmospheres ) in.. One reason for the shortfall is that the material ’ S structure deforms during battery operation, including electric.. On electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus ( BP ) red! A higher lithium ion storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material could make it possible to construct batteries. The storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material could make it possible to construct batteries! As the active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage during operation, these ions back... Recent progress on electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus anode materialThe anode in lithium-ion!